Sequence number for every packet has to be unique, but since it is finite 4 Giga at some point of time the Sequence number is completely consumed up. The sequence numbers which were used, when available can be used again as per requirement and this reusing of sequence numbers is known as Wrap around concept. This helps to send more and more data without worrying about how much data is to be sent.
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As the sequence numbers can be used again and again, so there is no limit on quantity of data. When and how wrap around is implemented? In these kind of cases the sequence numbers are wrapped, i. This wrapping is affected by the random initial sequence number.
We may get lesser number of sequence number in the beginning but after all sequence number is consumed again the sequence number will start from 0. From wherever we start using sequence number we will get 2 32 sequence number. Hence we can say that reusing a sequence number as per the requirement is the wrap concept of the TCP sequence number. Now if we have wrap concept then a new concept comes, i. Wrap Around Time — Time taken to wrap around is called wrap around time. It means if we start from sequence number 0 or it may be anything , after how much time we are going to again use this same sequence number.
Wrap around time is the time taken to start reusing the same sequence number also it can be said that the time taken to repeat the sequence number as per the requirement.
Wrap things up
Wrap around time depends on the number of sequence number and bandwidth. As the bandwidth is the rate of bits at which bits sequence number are consumed. The faster is the consumption rate, the faster is the consumption of sequence number. Why is Wrap Around possible? There is a concept termed as Life Time , in worst case a packet will require 3 minutes sec to reach the destination i.
After wrap around time the life time of the segments finishes, it means in that very time, timeout occurs. After all sequence numbers are used and their life time finishes there is no harm in using the same sequence number again.
Reducing Wrap Around Time — If the total number of bits to be consumed is equal to the sequence number then there will be no need to wrap around the sequence number. But this is not possible and we are going to use wrap around concept.
Since wrap around time is directly dependent on number of Sequence number and inversely dependent on Bandwidth Rate at which data will flow. More the Sequence numbers available, higher will be wrap around time.
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Wrap Around Concept and TCP Sequence Number
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